More information: www.elcomsoft.com/eppb.html The toolkit, which makes use of the recent news that iPhones track the locations of their users, brings the company into a voracious debate about the security and privacy rights of Smartphone users. The tracking, which Apple claims was a bug in the software, is also found in both Windows Phone 7 and Android operating systems.Apples fix, iOS 4.3.3, made the law enforcement community unhappy, since they had been using the iPhone and iPad geolocation data in criminal investigations. ElcomSoft has stepped in to fill in the gap in the data by breaking the phones encryption. The CEO Vladimir Katalov said in a statement that this will provide their customers with, ” …full access to all information stored in iPhone devices running iOS 4.”While the company says that it will only make this cracking software available to law enforcement, intelligence, forensic organizations and select government agencies, this new development does create another serious concern about if having a web connection 24/7 is worth the amount of data you are giving up for collection on a daily basis. Your smartphone knows everything about you, and it tells tales Explore further Citation: ElcomSoft undoes Apple’s location security fix (2011, May 25) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-05-elcomsoft-undoes-apple.html
© 2011 PhysOrg.com Are some governments taking ‘peak oil’ seriously? The problem they point out, is not so much that oil production has hit a cap, but that governments have been far too slow in dealing with such an obvious problem; one that could very well lead to serious economic repercussions and possible collapse if something isn’t done immediately.All agree, they say, that there will come a time when there won’t be enough oil to meet our needs and if other alternatives aren’t found, we’ll eventually find ourselves having to do without altogether. This is not in dispute. What is up for debate however is whether the world really has hit a cap, which is where production is continually being outpaced by demand.Some have argued that because the overall amount of oil extracted from the Earth continues to grow, it’s wrong to argue that we’ve hit the cap. Others, such as the two professors in their opinion piece, point out that it isn’t the amount of oil that is produced that determines the cap, but the amount that is produced in relation to the amount that can be had in an economical manner. By that standard, they say, we hit a cap back in 2005, the last year that production was able to keep ahead of demand. The biggest indicator of this, they argue, is the fact that oil prices have risen consistently at roughly fifteen percent per year since then, rather than stabilizing, which is what normally occurs when demand is met.Because of this, they say that governments should refocus their efforts; moving from arguments about moving off oil because of environmental concerns to much larger concerns about the future fragility of the global oil supply. Failure to do so, they argue, could result in wild swings in oil prices adversely impacting world economies and the hardships that could occur as a result. More information: Climate policy: Oil’s tipping point has passed, Nature 481, 433–435 (26 January 2012) doi:10.1038/481433aThe economic pain of a flattening supply will trump the environment as a reason to curb the use of fossil fuels, say James Murray and David King. (PhysOrg.com) — Two university professors, one from the School of Oceanography at the University of Washington in Seattle, the other from Oxford, have published an opinion piece in the journal Nature, where they argue that governments aren’t doing enough to wean modern societies off of oil and onto more sustainable and stable sources, including atomic energy. James Murray, who is also the founding director of the University of Washington’s Program on Climate Change and David King, Director of the Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment at Oxford as well as senior science adviser to the bank UBS also has served as chief scientific adviser to the British government back in 2000-07; together write that because global oil production hit a cap in 2005, small disruptions in supply have led to large disruptions in economic systems and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. A pumpjack in Texas. Image: Wikipedia. Explore further Journal information: Nature Citation: Professors argue flattening oil production should trump environment as reason to move to alternative sources (2012, January 26) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-01-professors-flattening-oil-production-trump.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
The system is an improvement on the process used to create bullet-time in the movies—there a single camera is placed on a track and moved to allow for perspective change, generally in front of a green screen. Afterwards a lot of time is invested by many people in creating the final effect. In contrast, this new system uses fixed cameras while a computer does all the work. To use it, a single cameraman manipulates a control device via display panel to follow the action—the cameras all mimic its movements. The result is a camera system able to create video that appears to circle around a basketball player going for a layup, for example or a speaker standing at a podium.The system is not live of course, thus it appears its best use would come in capturing small segments of video events that are likely to be important, such as a touchdown in football. Because live action ceases when such events occur, programmers can display the event over and over as they do now with instant replays, offering viewers a new perspective. Citation: Japan’s NHK unveils multi-camera system for ‘bullet-time’ slow motion replays (w/ video) (2013, June 5) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-06-japan-nhk-unveils-multi-camera-bullet-time.html (Phys.org) —NHK, Japan’s national broadcasting organization has developed a multi-camera system that allows for recording a single scene from slightly different angles. A computer knits the recorded video together allowing for a special effect known as “bullet-time.” The term has come to be defined as a specific type of special effect where time appears to be slowed to the point of being able to follow a bullet after being fired as it makes its way to a target. Additionally, the point of view is altered while the bullet is still moving, simulating an ability to circle around it. © 2013 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: via Diginfo.tv Explore further In the new system unveiled by NHK, eight cameras are mounted next to one another on tripods. Each of the cameras has two motors—one to control tilt, the other panning. The motors are controlled by a computer system that automatically allows for causing all of the cameras to point and focus on the same subject at the same time. Because of the small distance between the cameras, each has a slightly different perspective. After the cameras record an event, the video from all eight is fed into a computer that knits the sequences together creating a seamless video of the subject appearing slightly pivoted. The system takes just one minute to combine the separate video threads into a new single one ready for display—opening the door for use in live events such as basketball games or news broadcasts. GoPro camera rig creates awesome-dude effects
(Phys.org) —Researchers from the University’s of Bristol and Birmingham in the U.K. have made progress in identifying the ways that a conodont used its teeth—the earliest ever found in a vertebrate. In their paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, the team describes how they used 3D modeling developed for use in testing I-Beams for use in construction to reveal the inner details of the teeth. Conodonts were a very early type of vertebrate—an eel-like creature that lived approximately 200 million years ago. Researchers only know of their existence because of teeth they left behind. But until now, it wasn’t known how the teeth might have been situated on the organisms (they had no jaw) or for what purpose they might have been put to use.In this new effort, the researchers were able to create virtual images of one species of conodont—Panderodus acostatus using a special type of tomography on teeth that have been found. Doing so revealed several different types of teeth which apparently served different roles for the early sea creature. In the 3D recreations, the different sets of teeth were color-coded to set them apart from one another. The teeth, all situated on the head of the creature were spaced apart as occurs with modern animals e.g. incisors, molars, etc. One set of teeth, for example, had a circular cross section which meant they could have been bent or twisted, indicating that they were likely used to hold prey in place. Another set of teeth were more narrow and sharper, obvious hints that the organism had a cutting, piercing or slicing ability. Because there is no other evidence available it’s not clear how the teeth might have worked in conjunction with other body parts however. Also, the researchers still don’t know exactly how the teeth were kept anchored to the body as it’s assumed the rest of its tissue was soft. Modern animals have teeth anchored to bone, such as the jaw or facial plate. In order to make use of its teeth, P. acostatus would have needed a strong base to hold its teeth in place or an ability to reproduce them rapidly if they were lost. Citation: Study offers clues about how conodonts used earliest vertebrate teeth (2013, August 15) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-08-clues-conodonts-earliest-vertebrate-teeth.html More information: Cutting the first ‘teeth’: a new approach to functional analysis of conodont elements, Proceedings of the Royal Society B, Published 14 August 2013 DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2013.1524AbstractThe morphological disparity of conodont elements rivals the dentition of all other vertebrates, yet relatively little is known about their functional diversity. Nevertheless, conodonts are an invaluable resource for testing the generality of functional principles derived from vertebrate teeth, and for exploring convergence in a range of food-processing structures. In a few derived conodont taxa, occlusal patterns have been used to derive functional models. However, conodont elements commonly and primitively exhibit comparatively simple coniform morphologies, functional analysis of which has not progressed much beyond speculation based on analogy. We have generated high-resolution tomographic data for each morphotype of the coniform conodont Panderodus acostatus. Using virtual cross sections, it has been possible to characterize changes in physical properties associated with individual element morphology. Subtle changes in cross-sectional profile have profound implications for the functional performance of individual elements and the apparatus as a whole. This study has implications beyond the ecology of a single conodont taxon. It provides a basis for reinterpreting coniform conodont taxonomy (which is based heavily on cross-sectional profiles), in terms of functional performance and ecology, shedding new light on the conodont fossil record. This technique can also be applied to more derived conodont morphologies, as well as analogous dentitions in other vertebrates and invertebrates. Journal information: Proceedings of the Royal Society B © 2013 Phys.org Explore further Stem cells grow fully functional new teeth This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Journal information: Nature Chemistry Most methods of studying cell-free nucleotides involve DNA sequencing or PCR studies. Both of these have drawbacks. DNA sequencing is expensive and patients often have to wait several weeks for results. PCR requires extensive sample preparation and modifications to make it sufficiently selective for point mutations. To improve upon these techniques, Jagotamoy Das, Ivaylo Ivanov, Laura Montermini, Janusz Rak, Edward H. Sargent, and Shana O. Kelley from the University of Toronto and Montreal Children’s Hospital have developed a method that selectively identifies mutations common in lung and skin cancer with little-to-no sample preparation. Their work appears in Nature Chemistry.Over the past two decades, cancer genomics has made great strides in identifying genetic markers for certain cancers. Two examples used in the current study are the KRAS and the BRAF markers. KRAS has several mutations associated with it that are indicators of lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer. BRAF mutations are most notably associated with melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Many genetic cancer markers involve a point mutation on a particular gene. Point mutations are difficult to detect because they are in such small quantities in blood compared to normal cell-free nucleic acids, or wild type. One way that scientists have made PCR more sensitive is by using genetic “clamps” called Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs). These are strands of a complementary nucleotide sequence that bind to wild type sequences and consequently, amplifying the target sequence. Das, et al. combined this PNA clamp technique with an electrochemical probe to make a fast, selective, and cost-effective sensor. The first designed a clamp system to select for particular mutations in the KRAS gene. KRAS has seven mutations that are associated with lung cancer. Their model system included clamps for all of the other possible mutations except for 134A, their target mutation, and it had clamps form wild type sequences. DNA mutations get harder to hide Citation: Blood test for cancer biomarkers using an electrochemical clamp assay (2015, June 10) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-06-blood-cancer-biomarkers-electrochemical-clamp.html Explore further Credit: Wikimedia Commons © 2015 Phys.org More information: “An electrochemical clamp assay for direct, rapid analysis of circulating nucleic acids in serum” Nature Chemistry, (2015) DOI: 10.1038/nchem.2270AbstractThe analysis of cell-free nucleic acids (cfNAs), which are present at significant levels in the blood of cancer patients, can reveal the mutational spectrum of a tumour without the need for invasive sampling of the tissue. However, this requires differentiation between the nucleic acids that originate from healthy cells and the mutated sequences shed by tumour cells. Here we report an electrochemical clamp assay that directly detects mutated sequences in patient serum. This is the first successful detection of cfNAs without the need for enzymatic amplification, a step that normally requires extensive sample processing and is prone to interference. The new chip-based assay reads out the presence of mutations within 15 minutes using a collection of oligonucleotides that sequester closely related sequences in solution, and thus allow only the mutated sequence to bind to a chip-based sensor. We demonstrate excellent levels of sensitivity and specificity and show that the clamp assay accurately detects mutated sequences in a collection of samples taken from lung cancer and melanoma patients. They designed an electrochemical probe functionalized with complementary nucleic acid strands to various target sequences. The functionalized probe is a nanostructured microelectrode made from using nanolithography to insert palladium-coated gold deposits on silicon-coated wafers. The nanostructured microelectrodes were functionalized with PNAs that were specific to the 134A mutation sequence. Once the target sequence binds to the probe, it is read using an electrocatalytic reporter pair (Ru(NH3)63+ and Fe(CN)63-). Based on the electrochemical signal, their probe selectively bound the 134A mutation sequence without binding wild type sequences.To optimize their clamp assay, Das et al. tested whether their system could detect all seven mutations in KRAS in a non-purified, complex mixture of complementary mutant target, non-complementary mutants, the wild-type sequence, total human RNA and the clamp cocktail. They found that all seven mutations can be selectively detected using their system based on which PNA is omitted from the mixture.The next step was to see if the wild type PNA clamp needed to be included in the system for selective detection of point mutations. They tested a mutant positive patient sample and a healthy donor sample, and tested with the wild type clamp included and excluded. The authors determined that without the wild type clamp, they could not achieve sensitivity at the desired levels. They then evaluated the sensitivity of their clamp assay by looking at the electrochemical signal relative to varying concentrations of RNA in the solution. They found a limit of detection of 1 fg μl-1 and a turnaround time of five minutes. Finally, to demonstrate that this clamp assay was applicable to other mutations, they tested for biomarkers in the BRAF gene. The BRAF studies worked similarly to the KRAS studies, demonstrating the general applicability of this technique.After establishing the integrity of their clamp assay system, Das et al. then tested whether their system could detect cell free nucleic acids from serum retrieved from patients with lung cancer and patients with melanoma. These samples were compared to healthy donors and validated using an established PCR clamp method. Importantly, they tested both purified samples and samples taken directly from the patients without any purification. Their clamp assay identified 3/14 lung cancer patients as positive for KRAS and 4/9 melanoma patients as positive for BRAF in both the purified and non-purified samples.This work illustrates a new method for detecting cell free nucleic acids using peptide nucleic acid clamps and a nanostructured microelectrode chip. It is sufficiently sensitive and selective to detect cancer biomarkers in patient blood. Compared to other methods it is cost effective, minimally invasive, and requires little sample preparation. (Phys.org)—Researchers have found an innovative way to detect cancer biomarkers in a person’s blood. Nucleic acids, the components of DNA and RNA, are typically located within the cell. However, sometimes these nucleic acids can be found circulating in the blood. Cancer patients tend to have more of these cell-free nucleic acids in their blood. A small portion of these cell-free nucleic can contain mutations associated with certain cancers. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Sitaron ke Paas – Kalpana Chawla, a biographical play is being organised in the Capital by Art Karat and Arpana Trust. The play, directed and conceived by Sushma Seth, is based on the life of the astronaut Kalpana Chawla, her aspirations, her fearless spirit, and the exceptional qualities of perseverance. It brings forth the legacy she leaves behind after her death. The play is produced by Sushma Aggarwal and Krisna Shroff. The script is written by Nigam Prakash, Prem Sarin and Seth herself. Seth has been organising production oriented drama workshops for the last 12 years. Her last play was Rabindranath Tagore’s Tasher Desh. Seth was awarded the Kalpana Chawla Award for Excellence in 2012 which inspired her to write and direct a play on Chawla’s life. When: Today Where: Shri Ram Centre, Mandi House Timing: 6.30 pm
Yoga exercises provide improvements that are just as effective as traditional pulmonary rehabilitation methods in improving lung function of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), researchers from All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) here have found.COPD is a progressive lung disorder that makes it hard to breathe. The researchers found that yoga can improve pulmonary function, exercise capacity, and indices of systemic inflammation in patients with COPD. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’“Yoga is a cost-effective form of rehabilitation and is as effective as a standard PMR (pulmonary rehabilitation),” said the study by Randeep Guleria and colleagues from AIIMS. For the study, 60 patients with COPD were randomly divided into two groups.One group was taught yoga exercises including asanas, pranayam, meditation and relaxation techniques. The other underwent a structured pulmonary rehabilitation programme.Results showed that yoga and pulmonary rehabilitation exercises resulted in similar improvements in pulmonary function and quality of life after 12 weeks of training. The findings appeared in the journal Chest.
Kolkata: The Calcutta High Court has handed over the probe into the unnatural death of a Raniganj businessman’s wife to the state Criminal Investigation Department (CID) on Monday from Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI).It was on August 21 when Justice Rajshekhar Mantha of the Calcutta High Court directed that the probe should be handed over to the central agency.It may be mentioned that the woman, Pushpa Bhalotia, died on October 5, 2017. Initially, the case was being investigated by the state police and was later taken over by the state CID. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeThe state government had moved the high court’s division bench headed by Justice Jyotirmay Bhattacharya challenging the order of the single bench regarding transfer of the probe to the CBI. The state CID claimed before the court that the probe is going on in full swing and the process of examining of witnesses is also on.The division bench set aside the single bench’s order making it clear that the probe will remain with the CID. It also instructed the state investigating agency to submit a report on the progress of investigation in three months. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedThe victim’s husband Manoj Bhalotia, who is one of the suspects, has been directed by the court not to venture out of the jurisdictional area of Asansol DurgapurCommissionerate.He has to depose for interrogation at the CID headquarters at Bhabani Bhavan on September 6.The 39-year-old woman’s charred body was found at her residence in Raniganj of West Burdwan district. She was taken to a private hospital in Durgapur, where she succumbed to her injuries.Her husband and in-laws had claimed that Pushpa had committed suicide by setting herself on fire. Pushpa’s brother Gopal Agarwal had filed a murder case against Manoj and his family and the post-mortem also revealed that there was a bullet injury on her forehead raising questions about the ‘suicide’ angle.