Previous Article Next Article PLCs should consider impact on the publicOn 27 Feb 2001 in Personnel Today Comments are closed. CorporateUK has had a salutary six months. Railtrack and Corus may have found themselvesin the eye of the hurricane of public scrutiny but Vauxhall and the oilcompanies could each tell similar stories. Chiefexecutives and directors may insist that they have the right to take theirdecisions privately and that the only audience that requires consistent andtransparent fair-dealing is their shareholders and creditors – but they arehauled up by the brute realities of modern democracy together with the speedand depth with which information is communicated. Thepublic consequences of private decisions cannot be wished away; we are beingsharply reminded that the public corporation is just that – public.Butthe belief in corporate privacy, discretion and secrecy, together with thedismay that any other standard but loyalty to shareholders might apply tocorporate decision-making, runs very deep. If Sir Philip Beck, the chairman ofRailtrack, feels able to say that the Government has no right to interfere inRailtrack’s decision-making – notwithstanding the billions in support for rail investment and the public outcrypost-Hatfield – then that stands as a proxy for the way other boards feel incompanies less exposed to the demands of public accountability. SirBrian Moffat, chief executive of Corus, was certainly within his rights not totell even the Prime Minister the details of Corus’ redundancy programmebeforehand on the grounds the information was price-sensitive. After all, thereare no legal obligations to consult and inform government. But his actionspeaks volumes about UK PLC’s attitude to the public consequences of privatedecisions. They are simply not a public corporation’s first concern. Ifwe want something different, then we need leadership from government and thebusiness community alike and adherence to genuine universal rules. TheGovernment should put corporate Britain on notice. It should declare that itexpects corporate social responsibility, community investment, ethical practiceand sustainable growth to be embodied universally by the business communitywithin five years. If not, it will legislate its intentions in a new CompaniesAct.Forits part, corporate UK should respond by meeting the challenge rather thandisputing whether it needs to be made. It should accept that it is proper thatthe public conversation moves in this direction, and that in the public willdemand that public companies are public. Inshort we need to put the P back in PLC– and the business community should lead in this process rather being forcedinto its acceptance by legislation. We will see.Puttingback the P in PLC will be published today as part of the Industrial Society’sleadership weekByWill Hutton, chief executive of the Industrial Society Related posts:No related photos.
Toasting successOn 1 Apr 2001 in Personnel Today Related posts:No related photos. Thepubs sector has realised that, in the face of growing competition, training canhelp bring commercial success. Patrick McCurry raises his glass to the effortsof the British Institute of InnkeepingTraininghas finally come of age in the pubs sector. Only a few years ago pub managersmay have been able to change a barrel or add up the week’s takings, but werenot required to know about catering, wine selections or marketing.Nowthere is a challenge to old-fashioned drinking dens from more upmarket brandedpubs. Even old-style pubs are being forced by competition and the growingdemands of the public to replace the menu of stale sandwiches and hotpot and offer decent food, coffee, wine and,not least, good service.Recruitmentproblems and competition from other leisure activities are forcing licensedretailers to invest in training and development and create career paths thatcan take a bartender to managership of a pub turning over £2m a year.Spearheadingthe changes is the British Institute of Innkeeping, which represents 15,500pubs, and in February held its 10th National Innkeeping Training Awards.Theawards are part of a sustained campaign by the BII to raise standards in theindustry and the institute has developed a range of qualifications that are nowrecognised by the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority and can be acceptedin the national qualifications framework. “Traditionallythe sector has regarded training with some suspicion because they see it asgoing back to the classroom, but our message is that training deliverscommercial benefits,” says BII deputy director John Walker.“Therehas been a big change in the High Street in the last few years and pubs mustnow compete with multiplex cinemas and other leisure outlets.”Trainingis growing in importance given the increasing complexity of running pubs,particularly in large city centre premises.Managinga pub has also become increasingly big business, with prime sites for brandslike All Bar One and JD Wetherspoon turning over vast sums of money.Theaverage JD Wetherspoon pub, for example, turns over £23,000 a week, or £1.15m ayear and that can rise to over £2m for some of the larger pubs.“Theseare major businesses, sometimes with more than a hundred staff and managersearning £40,000 to £50,000 plus bonuses,” says Walker.Thesemanagers, often in their 20s and 30s, need to look after recruitment andretention, marketing, merchandising and much more, he says.Akey part of the BII’s role is to communicate to young people the careeropportunities in the sector, he says. Until very recently most young people andtheir parents viewed pubs as smoky and unhealthy environments where low pay andlong hours reigned.That’sall changed, Walker argues. Pay can be good, there’s usually a 48-hour week andit’s a sector where a young person can move up to management in a short spaceof time if they have the ability and ambition.Ofcourse, to make the sector attractive to young people a national trainingframework is essential. The BII’s training framework began with the nationallicensee’s certificate in 1996, which covers knowledge of licensing law andother responsibilities. This certificate is now required by 70 per cent oflocal magistrates before they will grant a licence.Thereare also a series of two to three-day advanced qualifications in areas likefinancial management, catering management and wine retail that the institutehas developed. “People can go on a two-day wine sales course and find theydouble sales within a few months so they become much more open to the benefitsof training,” says Walker.Theinstitute does not carry out training but is an awarding body. In February itannounced that it would be admitting trainers by creating a new category ofmembership. John Melia, business development manager, says he hopes this newmembership category for trainers will further raise the profile of training anddevelopment in the sector.Inthe past training has been informal and amateurish, says Melia. “We hope thatBII membership will lead to continuous professional development of trainers andthat it will give them a boost in making the business case for training.”BIIdirector Mary Curnock Cook says, “Five years ago there was really only one officialqualification in the sector and that was NVQs, but last year we awarded nearly60,000 qualifications and have now been given accreditation status by theQualifications and Curriculum Authority.”Sheadds that the sector needs to have credible qualifications, “If we don’t have aprofessional structure, we won’t be able to attract the right people into thesector.”Chainadds fizz with coachingWinnerof the BII award for best overall training programme for managed estates, JD Wetherspoonhas no choice but to train to keep up with its ambitious growth plans.Ithas nearly 500 pubs but is expanding at the rate of 100 a year and needs toensure it has enough managers in place, says HR director Su Beecham.Itsaward was for its scheme for shift managers training to be pub managers.Athousand people go through the course, which lasts 14 months, each year. Just over half are former Wetherspoon barstaff and the rest are from outside the company.“They’refrom a variety of backgrounds and we’ve had hairdressers, taxi drivers and evena professional footballer,” says Beecham.Trainingincludes practical courses in running the bar and catering combined withsupported on-the-job learning.“We’reconstantly updating the course and have recently expanded the areas onemployment law and IT, as all our pubs are computer linked,” she says.Theprogramme is linked to BII qualifications, such as the national licensee certificateand the advanced qualifications. “They’re a big part of our programme and we’vehelped the BII in the design of their qualifications,” says Beecham.Shesays, “When people ask me how I know the training is working I point to thegrowing profits, up 37 per cent last year, and the expansion of the company. Ina declining market our pubs are becoming more and more profitable.”Beechamadds that the fact that more than half the people on the programme have beenpromoted internally shows that staff are impressed by the company’s commitmentto training. Previous Article Next Article Comments are closed.
Previous Article Next Article Related posts:No related photos. Survey shows a slow start for smoking cessation trainingOn 1 Nov 2001 in Personnel Today Comments are closed. A study of smoking cessation training courses reveals gaps but provides auseful starting point for national standardsSmoking cessation training courses generally lack accreditation, have oftenbeen running for less than a year and offer trainees relatively littlefollow-up, according to a survey by the Government’s Health Development Agency.The study of smoking cessation training, the first of its kind in England,was designed to look at what training is being provided two years on from thelaunch of the Government’s national smoking cessation service. Smoking cessation services were launched within health action zones in 1999and were meant to have been provided in all health authorities from April lastyear. Their launch means people wanting to give up smoking can make use of anextended range of services, including a national telephone helpline, nicotinereplacement therapy and smoking cessation aids on prescription. The HDA study found there were relatively few general training providers forsuch services and health authorities relied heavily on in-house training. Other findings included the fact that only one provider had been through anysort of formal accreditation procedure, as such procedures were generally notestablished yet. Many courses had only been in operation for a year or less, and so far,there had been relatively little follow-up of trainees. The survey, which brought together details of trainers and courses, couldact as a useful starting point for the development of national standards forsmoking cessation training, said the HDA. HDA public health adviser Lesley Owen said, “This survey helps to mapout what smoking cessation training is available to health professionals acrossEngland, although inclusion doesn’t mean that the courses are endorsed by theHDA.” In July, the Government published figures showing that more than 61,000smokers gave up the habit in the past year after receiving help from smokingcessation services. www.hda-online.org.ukSmoking in pubs will be bannedThe restaurant and pub trade willsooner or later be forced to ban smoking in their establishments to protectstaff, delegates to a British Lung Foundation conference on cigarette smokingheard in September.In the summer the Government, following pressure from pubs andrestaurants, rejected advice from the Health and Safety Commission for a codeto force employers either to ban smoking or take stringent measures to protectstaff from others’ smoke.But Dr Ken Anderson, chairman of the British Lung Foundation inScotland, said delegates had agreed restaurants, pubs and hotels wouldeventually have to bow to the inevitable.”They will have to recognise that the health of theiremployees is of paramount importance,” he said.Other issues discussed at the conference included anti-smokingstrategies, cessation guidelines, smoking and lung disease and pulmonaryimmunology.
A sea of e-business talent, but for how much longer?On 20 Aug 2002 in Personnel Today The time to manage and motivate your e-business staff is now, during thedownturn, not when it is too late, says a recent surveyCompanies should be acting now to put the correct retention strategies inplace to identify and retain their best talent, says Mercer Human ResourceConsulting after conducting a survey which examined recruitment and retentionissues, together with pay and benefits in the UK e-business sector. It shows that e-business staff will again be in major demand when theeconomy improves. Brenda Wilson, senior consultant at Mercer says: “Manye-business staff have been laid off in the economic downturn. The tide hasturned and firms have a sea of talent to choose from. “They should beware that, when the economy picks up, however, theseemployees could again be in hot demand,” she adds. Seventeen organisations took part in the 2002 UK E-talent Compensationsurvey, most of which were parent companies with more than 5,000 employees. Itfound that, in the next 12 to 18 months, providing opportunities for careerdevelopment is perceived to be the most crucial factor in the battle to keephold of staff. “Training in this sector is particularly important, because technologychanges so fast and staff need to ensure their skills are up-to-date,”says Wilson. “Companies that invest in career development are more likelyto retain staff.” As well as the importance placed on training, 64 per cent of organisationsthought that having work-life policies in place helped retain staff and morethan half (55 per cent) felt that offering decent benefits kept employeesengaged in an organisation. More than half also said bonuses were an importantretention tool and they would become increasingly significant in the future. When it came to attracting staff, 64 per cent of companies said base pay wasan important issue, while over 36 per cent said bonuses helped attract staff.The feeling was that the emphasis could move slightly away from this tovariable pay in 12 to 18 months time, with 25 per cent believing bonuses wouldbe a vital part of the reward package. In the period 2001-2002, average salary increases in e-business was four percent for executives and general employees compared to an average 5 per cent in2000-2001. Next year it looks set to fall further to around 3 per cent. Themedian rate for a top technical e-business manager is £80,000, while a seniorweb developer can expect to earn £45,350 and a web content specialist £25,250(see table). Web developers and technical sales staff were the only rolesidentified as being difficult to recruit for. Becca Benton, Wilson’s colleague and talent management specialist at Mercer,believes identifying in-house e-business talent in the first place will also bekey to organisations. “It’s a case of really knowing who your best peopleare and those organisations that have the correct HR processes in place toidentify the talent internally will win out,” she says. “The purpose of a talent management approach is to identify thoseemployees who create the most value for the organisation and to maximise thatvalue through the management, development and retention of those starperformers. In the technology sector, the challenge will be to ensure thattalent has been identified and is being managed now before the sector picks upand attrition increases. “Star performers will contribute three times the value of a non-starperformer so it makes business sense to manage and retain them.” The report costs £1,500 and is available on 01753 848071. www.mergerhr.com Related posts:No related photos. Comments are closed. Previous Article Next Article
Related posts:No related photos. Previous Article Next Article Comments are closed. Shell fishes for fresh ideasOn 1 Sep 2002 in Personnel Today PhilipWhiteley looks at why the oil producer is encouraging its young talent to offerguidance to senior managersItis the newcomer who gives the freshest observations, for example, a newemployee will be astound-ed at the idiosyncrasies of an established team.Basedon this principle, Anglo-Dutch oil giant Shell has arranged a scheme in whichyoung employees give feedback on the leadership capabilities of seniorexecutives. Thescheme has been running since February, and involves 22 senior executives atShell Expro, headquartered in Aberdeen. It involves a ‘shadow’ coach, who is ayoung high-flier, giving feedback on performance and behaviour to an executivewhom he or she is shadowing. The idea is to capture the fresh insight from arelatively untutored, intelligent individual.Shellhad wanted to develop more authoritative and innovative leadership styles toaccompany its restructure. Margins had been falling in North Sea oil productionand, with heavy-fixed overheads, the firm needed to drive stronger performancewith existing resources. It needed more teamwork and innovation acrossdepartments. It wanted more rounded leaders, with strong motivational skillsand self-awareness. “Youcannot just say ‘We’re going to look like this, with cross-functional teams’and have it just happen on paper,” says Linda Rich, coach at DeltaPartnership, which has been running the programme. “You have to havepeople who have the vision and courage to say ‘No, we are going to do thisdifferently’.”ExperimentManagingdirector Tom Botts recalled a positive experience, also with Shell, where hehad been shadowed by a much less experienced individual as an experiment. Hefound this contributed greatly to his self-awareness.Hedecided to implement a structured process for all the executive team. He foundthat an inexperienced person is less likely to think politically and morelikely to give honest feedback on behaviour.Itis more than just a case of giving a few impressionistic observations. Eachexecutive has developmental objectives, and the shadow coach is briefed todiscuss the relevant behaviours with the leader. If someone is working oncommunicating vision to staff, then the shadow will attend staff meetings andcomment on how the individual comes across, judging the communication directlyand trying to gauge reactions of the team.Thetwo individuals – manager and shadow coach – will sit together to discuss theskills that are to be developed. Delta provides the coaches with agendas andquestionnaires.Thereis an initial meeting between the two to discuss overall objectives, andone-to-one meetings are held before and after key events such as a staffbriefing or a board meeting.Theshadow coaches are Shell employees, which the company says is an advantage inthat both shadow and the executive are learning simultaneously, so there is adouble advantage for the company. But there is the complication that, no matterhow you prepare and equip the younger individuals, they are still junioremployees at the same firm. Does this not hamper the extent to which they cantruly speak their mind?”Whenyou are first asked to be a coach it does put the fear of God into you,”says shadow coach Elaine Harrison, offshore supervisor on the Leman Alpha gasplatform in the southern North Sea. “To go into their world and sit thereand talk to them and tell them what they have done or how they have behaved ina meeting is scary; it made my heart race at the first couple of meetings. “Butit is a thrilling feeling to be part of the scenario that you would neverotherwise see,” she added.Whathas intrigued her about the life of the executive? “I have been surprisedat: how quickly they have to change one topic to another; the amount ofinformation that they have to absorb and the speed with which they do so; thedemands on their time and how they have to have such stringent time management;and how to prioritise workloads.”Also,the company arranges for an experienced supervisor to be available for theshadow coaches. They can bring any issue to the supervisor such as whether theyfeel intimidated.”Youare able to talk to someone at a higher level than you would usually be allowedto do,” says Harrison. “As a member of the audience – I am like wallpaper– I can observe purely what they are doing.”Harrisonshadows Allan Hart, general manager of the gas supply group in Lowestoft. Hartsays that her forthrightness gives him ‘pinpoint feedback’ on specific moments,which he can use to improve performance. ForIan Silk, an asset leader in the oil division at Shell, based in Aberdeen, themost useful feature of having a shadow coach is the focus on his realindividual performance. “It better prepares you for the assessments. Itgives you a degree of preparation and professionalism that you take to everyother meeting. “Iwould go into sessions trying to introduce new concepts and get people engaged.If it had been just me, I might have thought that I was communicating my visionbecause I spent plenty of time talking about it, but the shadow coach might seeit differently. “Thenext time you would change the formula to something more participative. It isextremely practical. It made me think about an event in leadership terms,rather than a process of information flow.”KeypointsThecost: Main cost was consulting time, designing the process and supporting theprogramme. Managers’ and coaches’ time for preparation and debriefing.Theoutcome: After three months, coaches are surveyed on their leaders’ progress:–50 per cent report high progress; 50 per cent, moderate progress–75 per cent of coaches indicate significant value for own development; 25per cent, said moderate value
Private shame of public leadersOn 10 Jun 2003 in Personnel Today Comments are closed. Related posts:No related photos. Public sector leaders have no more right to big pay increases than teachers,nurses or firefightersNext to those stout and shameless beasts in the private sector, they are noteven tubby kittens, yet listening to the bosses of hospitals, councils and quangoesjustify their swaggering pay increases is nevertheless an anthropologicaltreat. The cry of council chiefs is plaintive and sly. Look at the top dog ofBlockbuster Video, they say – £416,000 a year without the burden of having toshut a care home or risk being lynched in the street by furious tenants. The highest paid job in local government is at Bradford MetropolitanDistrict Council on up to £200,000. Ergo, municipal bosses need to catch up.Many council top pay bands jumped £20,000 in 2002; the upper limit at KentCounty Council and the London Borough of Wandsworth recently nudged ahead ofthe Prime Minister’s salary of £177,000. Spotting a government quango head in full flow is rarer. While disclosurerequirements are tighter than for local authorities (but still lax by privatesector standards), the quango chief is, by nature, a secretive creature. Someuse the Data Protection Act (DPA) to avoid telling taxpayers how much theyearn. IDS, the pay specialist, reckons their average pay rose by 9.4 per centto March 2002 (inflation is 3 per cent). Healing the sick is, of course, priceless. But is managing the healers ofthe sick the kind of job that needed a pay rise of 20 per cent in 2002 for aquarter of hospital chief executives and 10 per cent for half? Contrast thatwith the ‘generous’ offer to firefighters of 16 per cent over two and a halfyears. As with quangoes, many camouflage themselves with the DPA. Yet justoccasionally they let slip with a giddy chirrup of exculpatory babble that goeslike this: complexity, responsibility, talent, motivation, scrutiny, audits,targets, and – loudest of all – still no comparison with the private sector. There is one excellent argument here in a jungle of bad ones: the leaders ofpublic sector organisations do indeed have complicated and responsible jobs onwhich millions depend. Reward should reflect the seriousness of the undertaking– as, by and large, it already does. But we then need to stalk and maul the two fallacies on which all the otherbad arguments depend. The first, is that leaders are different from otherdeserving, undervalued public servants. The second, is that public sector chiefexecutives operate in the same labour market as private sector leaders, andshould thus seek to mimic their movements in pay. I cannot see any reason why public sector leaders are entitled to specialpleading. There are shortages of teachers, social services professionals,environmental health officers, nurses, radiographers, planners, lawyers, anddozens of others. The Government has made available some short-term cash toease recruitment problems, but has stuck firm to its line that there should beno more pay without performance improvements. Leaders should be no exception. The whole ethos of the public sector dependspartly on considerations of fairness playing a significant role in reward. Manyuntidy compromises are necessary to preserve this sense of fairness – butinflating differentials at the top is tantamount to a declaration of war uponit Next, it is time the tactical comparison game was exposed for thedeliciously flexible ruse it is. Just as British corporate executives seek tobe levelled up to American levels of compensation rather than levelled down toEuropean levels, public sector bosses have realised that pretending they share‘a market’ with private sector chief executives might provide ammunition intheir quest for more money. Yet just because you can earn more at Blockbuster Video than Bradford MBC isnot a justification for raising the pay of the latter. The dottiness/dopeynessof shareholders is not a reason for taxpayers to ape them. It may be the Government’s aim to encourage more interchange of leadersbetween the public and private sectors, but the fact is that this remainsextremely rare. SOLACE, the local government chief executive’s club, is unable to recall anincidence of a single member from a commercial background. The NHSConfederation can think of just two hospital bosses. The senior civil serviceis the only part of the public sector where cross-fertilisation of leaders is areality – a fifth of appointments in 2002 came from the private sector. Butthen pay at the top of the civil service was always very high, anyway. Whyincrease it so fast? According to Laurance Jackson, director of the headhunter Tribal GWT, thereason so few make the transition is experience. “Unless you’ve worked inlocal government, the chances of you having the cultural know-how or thepolitical astuteness to lead such a complex organisation are remote,” hesays. Reward is not the barrier; background is. Therefore, why maintain thefiction that there is one universal market for ‘talented’ executives? Over the past 25 years, the private sector has been characterised by thegrowing proportion of corporate earnings that have been diverted into thetrousers of senior managers and accelerating differentials between top andaverage earners. Do we really want this to happen with the fruits of taxation? Remember: we only believe that the pharaohs built the pyramids becauseno-one ever asked the slaves. Good leadership of public services is important,but collective endeavour is infinitely more so. Previous Article Next Article
Previous Article Next Article Workplace Health Activity ToolkitOn 1 Sep 2003 in Personnel Today Comments are closed. Review by Greta Thornbory Designed to help you get your workforce moving in the right direction forhealthy activity in any industry, this pack should tell you all you need toknow on the health benefits of exercise – or at least that is what I eventuallydiscovered. As it is an educational pack, it is available free from the British HeartFoundation (BHF). But because it has charitable status and relies on donations,the BHF asks for a donation and gives a list of suggested donations againstfurther resources. It states you do not have to be an expert to use the pack, however, it tookme some time to find my way around it, to work out what it was and what I hadto do with it – and even then I was not too sure. I thought the CD-Rom wouldtell me, but it did not start automatically so I had to explore to find outwhat the CD contained. Later I realised that it was printed on inside of the folder containing theCD. Even then, there seemed to be so much on it – case studies, word documentswith resources, games files and PowerPoint presentations – that I would haveneeded a great deal of time to sort through what was specifically useful. This is a great shame as it contains some very useful tools for healthpromotion in the work- place; it just does not give clear instructions. So if you want materials for a health promotion project on the healthbenefits of exercise this pack contains it all. Just be prepared to spend sometime sorting out what you want. www.bhf.org.ukGreta Thornbory, MSc RGN OHNC DipNOH PGCEA MIOSH Related posts:No related photos.
EngineeringOn 29 Jan 2004 in Personnel Today Comments are closed. Previous Article Next Article Related posts:No related photos. Engineeringcontinues to shed jobs. The biggest drop in the three months to the end of Junehas been in the West Midlands, where 30 per cent of jobs were lost. No area hastaken on extra staff, with Northern Ireland (NI) neither gaining nor losingstaff. Experts predict NI’s engineering employment to start growing in the nextthree months. www.eef.org.ukview graphic requires flash enabledbrowser
Comments are closed. It’s not just lonely hearts who are turning to speed-dating to snarethemselves ‘that special person’. City institutions are now using‘speed-recruitment’ to land ‘that special employee’. The first-ever speed-recruitment event takes place this Thursday in London.It has been developed to meet accelerated demand from both top organisationsand graduate job-seekers this summer. Despite record numbers graduating this year, hundreds of places on graduate trainingschemes, due to start next month, are still unfilled, while the Association ofGraduate Recruitment reports the biggest increase in graduate vacancies since2000. Speed-recruitment will allow employers and graduate jobseekers to have10-minute, face-to-face ‘taster’ interviews. Companies can pitch theirbackground information while graduates present their CVs, allowing both sidesto then decide if they want to take things a stage further. Reed Graduates, the company that designed the event, said demand from theCity of London and the financial sector for new graduates had expandedparticularly quickly compared to 2003, and confirmed that big names such asDeloitte and KPMG will be using speed-recruiting. Martin Hickerton, team leader at Reed Graduates, said: “Leadingorganizations are having real difficulties in recruiting the high calibregraduates they need for their graduate trainee programmes this year. Having cutback on formal graduate trainee programmes over the last few years, demand hasnow returned. However many new graduates have not realised the full extent ofthe opportunities now open to them amongst some of the most prestigiousemployers in the country.” Ruth Stokes, head of graduate recruitment at KPMG, said the company wasalways looking for new and cost-effective ways to meet graduates. “This is particularly important at the moment,” she said. “Wehave recently increased our targets numbers for this year resulting in ushaving places still available on our graduate trainee schemes starting thisSeptember and October.” Make a date with top talentOn 10 Aug 2004 in Personnel Today Previous Article Next Article Related posts:No related photos.
Comments are closed. Comment on (Even more) Terrifying recruitment stories. In 6 words! by Melinda GoodrichShared from missc on 24 Nov 2015 in Personnel Today Related posts:No related photos. My client calls & says “Candidate did magic tricks during interview!”Read full article Previous Article Next Article